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The melodic minor scale and its scales and chords

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The melodic minor scale differs from the Jonian major scale only in one note: the minor third instead of the major third. But this has a major effect when it comes to building up a tonal system:

MM1 - ImMaj7:
The 1st, 3rd, 5th and 7th note create a minor major chord (ImMaj7) with minor third and major seventh. The 11, here the F, is in the classical melodic minor II-V-I progression the forbidden note as it would anticipate the root note of the subdominant.

MM2 - IIm7:
Starting the melodic minor scale from the 2nd note, here the D, gives the following MM2 scale:

The IIm7 chord built from the 1st, 3rd, 5th and 7th note is a minor seventh chord. This scale is equal to the Dorian mode except for the b9 instead of the 9. The 13, here the B, is in the classical melodic minor II-V-I progression the forbidden note as it would anticipate the seventh of the following ImMaj7 chord.

MM3 - IIImaj7#5:
Starting the melodic minor scale form the third note, here the Eb, gives the following MM3 scale:

The bIIImaj7#5 chord built from the 1st, 3rd, 5th and 7th note, here Ebmaj7#5, is a major7 chord with augmented fifth. The 9, here the F, is in the classical melodic minor II-V-I progression the forbidden note as it would anticipate the root note of the following IV7#11 chord.

MM4 (Mixo#11 oder Lydianb7) - IV7#11:
Starting the melodic minor scale from the fourth note, here the F, gives the following MM4 scale:

The IV7#11 chord built from the 1st, 3rd, 5th and 7th note is a dominant seventh chord where the #11 will normally be used instead of the 5. MM4 is equal to the Lydian mode except for the 7 instead of the major7 and is therefore often referred to as Lydianb7 in the English language area. As it is used as dominant scale it´s better referred to as Mixo#11 for it is also equal to the Mixolydian mode except for the #11 instead of the 11. The IV7#11 is commonly used as so-called secondary dominant as a replacement for the dominant on the 5th degree and thus generally not found on the 5th degree (see here).

MM5 - V7:
Starting the melodic minor scale from the fifth note, here the G, gives the following MM5 scale:

The V7 chord built from the 1st, 3rd, 5th and 7th note, here G7, is a dominant seventh chord. As in the Mixolydian mode the major third and the 11 must not be played at the same time due to their tonal distance of a minor second which oherwise would sound too dissonant.

MM6 (Locrian9) - VIm7b5:
Starting the melodic minor scale from the sixth note, here the Ab, gives the following MM6 scale:

The VIm7b5 chord built from the 1st, 3rd, 5th and 7th note, here the Abm7b5, is a half-diminished minor seventh chord with diminished fifth (b5). MM6 is equal to the Locrian scale except for the 9 instead of the b9. That´s why it is also referred to as Locrian9 mode.

MM7 (altered):
Starting the melodic minor scale from the seventh note, here the B, gives the following MM7 scale:

The created chord is the so-called altered dominant seventh chord with the tensions b9, #9 and b13. It normally stands on the fifth degree and can be resolved to major as well as to minor.

Resumé melodic minor:

The following chords and scales can be created from the melodic minor scale:

Characteristic feature of the melodic minor scale is that it includes three dominant seventh chords. The dominant seventh chords on the fourth (mixo#11) and the seventh degree (altered) will generally be played with the #11.